Split by the equator, Indonesia has an almost entirely tropical climate, with the coastal plains averaging 32°C, the inland and mountain areas averaging 26°C, and the higher mountain regions, 23°C. The area's relative humidity is quite high, and ranges between 70 and 90 percent. The dry season on June to September while a rainy season on December to March.
THE SYSTEM FOR INTERVENTION: ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN
According to the West Midlands Public Health Observatory (UK) a comfortable room temperature for sedentary adults is 21°C. It represents the small range of temperatures at which the air feels neither hot nor cold. So that’s why in Surabaya – my homeland city (West part of Indonesia – near the sea) which have averaging temperature 36oC is needed air conditioning to make the room’s temperature comfortable.
The old architectural does not pay attention to energy-efficient building design; we need light-on even in the day, need more air conditioning or fan to reduce room’s temperature from 36°C to 21°C. It means we need more electricity. Indonesia electricity produces from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels is the largest single source of greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. The supply and use of fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O).
ACTIONS CONSIDERED EMISSION OF GREENHOUSE GASES
- I need my house has energy-efficient. According to my house design, I will develop the big window to let air flow enter my house; it can reduce temperature and reduce air condition or fan uses. Moreover with the big window makes the illumination from sunlight can reduce light-on in the day.
- Energy-efficient appliances by use automatic motion - sensors switch. It can reduce the electricity because the switch will turn out the light when no one in the room. The light will turn on when someone enter the room.
- Applied power management systems also reduce energy usage by idle appliances by turning them off or putting them into a ‘low-energy mode' after a certain time.
- Place thermal insulation under tiles to reduce heat. According to the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) use roof insulation help us to use less energy in cooling to achieve a satisfactory temperature.
- I share information to my colleague, my neighborhood in small discussion and also put my intervention on my personal blog (amdalnlingkungan.blogspot.com)
The five simple steps can contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
POSSIBLE CHANGES AFTER INTERVENTION
AT MY HOME
Let’s calculate my house contribution of CO2 due to electricity uses: (regarding to assumption of EPA)
From 2 unit Air conditioning 1 PK
0.80 kWh x 12 hours/day x 30 day/month x 12 month/year x 0.48322 kgCO2/kWh x 2 unit = 3,340.02 kgCO2/ year
From 10 lamp
0.04 kWh x 12 hours/day x 30 day/month x 12 month/year x 0.48322 kgCO2/kWh x 10 unit = 835.00 kgCO2/ year
If I replace electricity appliances with small electricity use:
Replace 2 unit Air conditioning 1 PK with ½ PK
0.320 kWh x 12 hours/day x 30 day/month x 12 month/year x 0.48322 kgCO2/kWh x 2 unit = 1,336.01 kgCO2/ year.
It means I reduced GHG to the atmosphere 2,004.01 kgCO2/ year.
Replace 10 lamp of 40 watt with LED 23 watt
0.04 kWh x 12 hours/day x 30 day/month x 12 month/year x 0.48322 kgCO2/kWh x 10 unit = 480.13 kgCO2/ year.
It means I reduced GHG to the atmosphere 354.88 kgCO2/ year.
That is my simple action to contribute for GHG emission.
My action in line with Energy Efficiency and Conservation Policy in Indonesia:
1. Indonesia’s President Commitment on G-20 Pittsburgh and COP15 To reduce the GHG Emission in 2020 from 26% to 41% through the development of new renewable energy and implementing energy conservation by all sectors.
2. Indonesia’s government creating Policy and Regulation n industrial, commercial, household, and transportation sector.
3. For energy efficiency appliances and implementation of energy conservation which will receive incentive and disincentive from Indonesia’s government
4. Indonesia’s government conduct seminar/workshop and public advertisement through printed and electronics media, and dissemination of brochure on energy efficiency for Creating Public Awareness
5. Indonesia’s government gives energy efficiency labeling for electric home appliance.
6. Indonesia’s government have cooperative project among six Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam) which together make harmonization of standards and labels of the seven household products (air conditioners, fan, refrigerator, electric ballasts, electric motors, CFL and a rice cooker)
7. Development of a NAMA strategy on the substitution of conventional street lighting with LED, supported by GIZ .